In *Mark Twain's Religion* (2003), William E. Phipps asserts that the
Presbyterian hymnal entitled *Psalms and Hymns Adapted to the Social,
Private, and Public Worship in the Presbyterian Church in the United States
of America *(1843) was the second most influential book in young Sam
Can anyone confirm whether this was in fact the hymnal used by the First
Presbyterian Church during the time in which Clemens attended with his
mother and siblings?
I ask particularly because the First Presbyterian Church in Hannibal became
"New School" in 1841 and this hymnal (*Psalms and Hymns*) was actually
created by the "Old School" assembly.
According to my research, the New School General Assembly of 1840 appointed
a committee which published a different hymnal titled *Church Psalmist; or
Psalms and Hymns, for the Public, Social, and Private Use of Evangelical
As a New School church (at least from 1841-1857), Hannibal's First
Presbyterian ought to have used *Church Psalmist *rather than *Psalms and
Has anyone definitively documented which hymnal was used in the church
young Sam attended?
Thanks in advance!
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Sarah Fredericks, MA
PhD Candidate, American Literature
Graduate Associate in Teaching
Department of English
The University of Arizona