THE MARK TWAIN PAPERS
The Bancroft Library
University of California
Berkeley, California 94720
The collection known as the Mark Twain Papers is the major repository
to the life and work of Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain). The Mark Twain
or photocopies of some fifty notebooks kept by the author; approximately
letters written by
Clemens, his wife, or three daughters; over 17,000 letters to him or his
and some 600 literary
manuscripts, many of which were never published in Clemens's lifetime.
Collateral material includes
Mark Twain's working notes, manuscript drafts, typescripts, and printers'
proofs; first and early editions
of his published works; a number of inscribed books from his library; and
photographs of the author,
his family, and associates. Additionally, the collection contains Clemens's
scrapbooks, interviews, and a working library of secondary sources.
The core of the collection is manuscript that was in the author's
possession at his death in 1910,
deposited here by his daughter Clara Clemens Samossoud in 1949, and
by her to the
University upon her death in 1962. Generous donations from institutions and
individuals continue to
enlarge the collection.
Housed in the Mark Twain Papers is the Mark Twain Project, an
program of The Bancroft Library. Its editors and their assistants are at
on a comprehensive
scholarly edition of all of Mark Twain's private papers and published works.
Known as The Mark
Twain Papers and Works of Mark Twain, twenty-one volumes of an edition that
some seventy volumes have thus far been published by the University of
California Press. The Press is
also issuing a popular trade edition, known as the Mark Twain Library, drawn
from the texts of the
scholarly edition. A full list of the Project's publications appears at the
of this document.
The editorial work leading to publication of all of Mark Twain's
is supported by the
National Endowment for the Humanities, The Friends of The Bancroft Library,
California, and private donors. Contributions, made payable to The Friends
The Bancroft Library
and designated for the Mark Twain Project, may be sent to the address given
Access to the Archive
The materials collected in the Mark Twain Papers are available to
engaged in specific
research projects whose needs cannot be met through the abundance of
in the collection is not permitted. Materials do not generally circulate
outside The Bancroft Library.
Microfilms of some manuscripts may be borrowed through interlibrary loan.
Please refer to the section
below on manuscripts.
Access to materials in the collection which are not available through
other UCB libraries is
through the Heller Reading Room of The Bancroft Library, which is reached
through the main entrance
on the east side of the library. Materials may be paged between 9 to 5,
Materials are available on Saturdays from 1 to 5 if The Bancroft Library is
and if arrangements
have been made on the previous Friday morning. Scholars wishing to use the
Twain Papers are
advised to write or telephone in advance of their visit to let the staff
which materials they will want
to see. The Project's editors are available by appointment for consultation
with advanced researchers,
preferably between the hours of 1 and 4. A list of recommended readings for
appears below under "Suggestions for Mark Twain Researchers."
For those unable to visit The Bancroft Library, strictly limited
assistance by mail or
telephone is available. Such assistance is ordinarily restricted to one
staff time. People requiring
more extended assistance can sometimes be referred to paid researchers.
Use of Materials
While there is no comprehensive catalog to the various collections
constitute the Mark
Twain Papers, there are finding aids to most elements of the archive. The
collections and their finding
aids are described below (abbreviations used are MTP for Mark Twain Papers,
for Samuel L.
Clemens, and TBL for The Bancroft Library). For a list of TBL's holdings of
microfilm of collections
not at TBL, see "Index to Microfilm in MTP" at TBL desk (access to some
originals are in other collections, requires the permission of the
owning the originals).
Manuscripts. Arranged by types as listed below, the manuscripts
collection includes holograph
documents as well as photocopy of manuscript in other collections. Most of
have been photocopied and microfilmed, and many have been transcribed. For
protection of the
manuscripts, researchers who have no compelling need to consult the
are referred to
photocopies, to microfilm, or to typed transcriptions. The microfilm is
available to researchers at other
institutions through the Interlibrary Borrowing Service. See "Guide to the
Microfilm Edition of the
Papers of SLC" at TBL desk. The manuscripts are variously catalogued as
clemens letters. Letters written during SLC's lifetime by or on behalf
him, his wife, his daughters,
or his secretary Isabel V. Lyon. Available for research: photocopy, typed
transcriptions, microfilm. SLC's letters
through 1869 are published and indexed in Mark Twain's Letters, volumes 1-3.
All known letters for which some
text survives are catalogued in the Union Catalog of Clemens Letters (at TBL
desk) and its supplements (in
general letters. Letters written to SLC, his wife, his daughters, or his
secretary Isabel V. Lyon, or with
reference to them; and letters written after SLC's death, 21 April 1910, by
Clara Clemens Gabrilowitsch (later
Samossoud) and Isabel V. Lyon. Catalogued in the Union Catalog of Letters
Clemens (in MTP).
notebooks. Notebooks kept by or for SLC, his wife, or his secretary
V. Lyon. Available for research:
typed transcriptions, microfilm. SLC's notebooks through June 1891 are
published and indexed in Mark Twain's
Notebooks & Journals, volumes 1-3. Card-file index to all of SLC's
autobiographical dictations. Typescripts annotated by SLC. Available
microfilm. Card-file index in MTP.
literary manuscripts and related documents. Available for research:
microfilm. Card-file catalog
by title in MTP.
Scrapbooks. Miscellaneous documents and clippings relating to SLC,
collected by and for him during
his lifetime. Rudimentary card-file index in MTP.
Books and Periodicals. Because copies of early and rare editions of a
title are often fragile, readers who
do not require a copy from a particular edition should use a modern one from
general collections in Doe
or Moffitt Libraries. Titles not available in those collections may be
requested from MTP. Request books by
author and title and, where pertinent, publisher, publication date, or other
particulars, as well as by call number
if there is one.
mark twain titles--first, early, and rare editions. Most are catalogued
GLADIS, the on-line
catalog to the Berkeley campus libraries; some are not (inquire about
copies in MTP).
slc's library. Books known to have belonged to SLC, many containing
marginalia, are described in Mark
Twain's Library by Alan Gribben and its supplements (in MTP). Photocopy of
of the marginalia and, as
Gribben indicates, some of the books themselves are in MTP.
other books, periodicals, and shorter mark twain pieces. Some later and
non-rare editions of Mark
Twain titles, including some translations into languages other than English;
secondary works related to Mark
Twain studies (see also "Reprint Files" below). Many are catalogued in
the on-line catalog to the
Berkeley campus libraries; some are not (inquire in MTP about unlisted
A card-file index in MTP locates
published sources for Mark Twain titles that are shorter than book-length.
Pictorial Materials. Arranged in groups according to subject or
By far the largest group consists
of pictures (mainly photographs) of SLC. These are in albums of viewing
arranged in roughly
chronological order. Four other albums contain photocopies of (1)
of Clemens family members,
(2) photographs taken by Isabel V. Lyon between 1904 and 1909, (3)
taken by Jean Clemens, and
(4) photographs, from sources other than Lyon or Jean Clemens, of other
associated with SLC.
Photographs of places associated with SLC are arranged in folders by
Documents. A miscellany of contemporary items relating to SLC, such
his own business documents,
newspaper articles about him and subjects associated with him, and
with and about him. Arranged
in folders chronologically by year and within those folders in roughly
chronological order. No catalog.
Subject Files. Miscellaneous items relating to SLC, his family, and
acquaintances--mainly from published
sources but including some unique and holograph documents. Arranged in
by subject (personal names,
place names, topics, etc.). A computerized file of subject headings may be
searched by MTP staff.
Reprint Files. Miscellaneous critical and biographical articles
to SLC. Arranged alphabetically
by author. The general collections of Doe or Moffitt Libraries should be
consulted first for periodical
publications available there. A computerized file of author/title headings
be searched by MTP staff.
Most materials can be photocopied, at a cost of 15 cents per exposure.
regret that we cannot offer
same-day copying for large orders. Photographic services are also
The current cost of a standard
black-and-white 8-by-10-inch print ranges from $10.00 to $19.00, depending
the availability of a negative.
Photographic prints generally require 11 working days to process.
copy material of which the
Mark Twain Papers has only photocopy of an original in another collection
be obtained from the owner
of the original.
Permission to Publish
It is the responsibility of anyone wishing to quote Mark Twain's
for publication to determine the
copyright status of the quoted material. The Mark Twain Project regrets
has neither the time nor the staff
available to help with searches concerning dates of publication.
for permission to publish material
under copyright should be made to the publisher. Application for permission
publish previously unpublished
materials, including photographs, should be made to the General Editor, Mark
Suggestions for Mark Twain Researchers
The first step in researching Mark Twain should be an acquaintance
some of the following studies
of his life and work. Most are available from The Library (Doe) or Moffitt
Library on the Berkeley campus.
Blanck, Jacob. Bibliography of American Literature. Vol. 2. 1957.
Johnson, Merle. A Bibliography of the Works of Mark Twain. Rev. ed.
Kaplan, Justin. Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain. 1966. Biography.
Mark Twain-Howells Letters: The Correspondence of Samuel L. Clemens
William Dean Howells,
1872-1910. 2 vols. Ed. Henry Nash Smith and William M. Gibson.
Mark Twain Speaking. Ed. Paul Fatout. 1976. A collection of
Mark Twain's Autobiography. Ed. Albert Bigelow Paine. 1924. A
from Mark Twain's
autobiographical writings and dictations.
Mark Twain's Letters. 2 vols. Ed. Albert Bigelow Paine. 1917. A
Mark Twain's Letters: Volume 1, 1853-1866; Volume 2, 1867-1868;
1869. Ed. Edgar Marquess
Branch et al. 1987; 1990; 1992.
Mark Twain's Notebooks & Journals, 1855-1891. 3 vols. Ed. Frederick
Anderson et al. 1975-1979.
Paine, Albert Bigelow. Mark Twain: A Biography. Issued in 2-, 3-,
4-volume sets. 1912.
Tenney, Thomas A. Mark Twain: A Reference Guide. 1977. Annual
supplements appeared in
American Literary Realism through 1983; subsequent supplements
appeared in the Mark
Twain Circular. An index to these supplements appears in the
Twain Circular starting
with the March-June 1990 issue.
Specialized studies, critical as well as biographical, can be located
Tenney. Although the Mark Twain
Project is an editorial office, not a reference service, assistance for
researchers who have already
explored these sources can be arranged by appointment. Such assistance is
generally limited to one hour.
The Mark Twain Papers and Works of Mark Twain
Mark Twain Library
Inquiries: Robert H. Hirst, General Editor, Mark Twain Project, The Bancroft
Library, University of California, Berkeley
e-mail [log in to unmask]
Book orders: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA
MARK TWAIN PAPERS
Satires & Burlesques (1967)
Which Was the Dream? and Other Symbolic Writings of the Later Years
Letters to His Publishers, 1867-1894 (1967)
Correspondence with Henry Huttleston Rogers (1969)
Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts (1969)*
Hannibal, Huck & Tom (1969)
Fables of Man (1972)
Notebooks & Journals, Volume I: 1855-1873 (1975)
Notebooks & Journals, Volume II: 1877-1883 (1975)
Notebooks & Journals, Volume III: 1883-1891 (1979)
Letters, Volume 1: 1853-1866 (1988)
Letters, Volume 2: 1867-1868 (1990)
WORKS OF MARK TWAIN
Roughing It (1972)*
What Is Man? and Other Philosophical Writings (1973)
The Prince and the Pauper (1979)
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1979)
Early Tales & Sketches, Volume 1: 1851-1864 (1979)
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer ~ Tom Sawyer Abroad ~ Tom Sawyer, Detective
Early Tales & Sketches, Volume 2: 1864-1865 (1981)
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1988)
MARK TWAIN LIBRARY*
No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger (1982)
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1982)
Tom Sawyer Abroad ~ Tom Sawyer, Detective (1982)
The Prince and the Pauper (1983)
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1983)
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1985)
Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer among the Indians, and Other Unfinished Stories
The Devil's Race Track: Mark Twain's Great Dark Writings. The Best from
Was the Dream?
and Fables of Man (1980)*
Union Catalog of Clemens Letters (1986)
*Available in both cloth and paper covers.
WORKS OF MARK TWAIN
Early Tales & Sketches, Volume 3: 1866-1868 (1992)
Roughing It (revised edition, 1992)
Early Tales & Sketches, Volume 4: 1869 (1993)
Early Tales & Sketches, Volume 5: 1869-1870 (1994) or
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (revised edition, 1994)
The Innocents Abroad (1996)
Middle Tales & Sketches, 1872-1892 (1996)
Life on the Mississippi (1997)
MARK TWAIN PAPERS
Letters, Volume 3: 1869 (1991)
Letters, Volume 4: 1870-1871 (1994)
Letters, Volume 5: 1872-1873 (1995)
Letters, Volume 6: 1874-1875 (1997)
Mark Twain's Autobiography (1998)
Letters, Volume 7: 1876-1877 (1999)
MARK TWAIN LIBRARY
Roughing It (revised edition, 1992)*
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (revised edition, 1994)*
The Innocents Abroad (1996)*
Life on the Mississippi (1997)*