Regarding the French, you might track down my:

"Carlyle, Clemens, and Dickens: Mark Twain's Francophobia, The French
Revolution and Determinism." Studies in American Fiction. Vol. 20:2
(Autumn 1992): 197-205.

If memory serves (it's been 15 years), it discusses Twain's lifetime
love of Carlyle whose French Revolution shaped much of his thinking on
the French. During the 19th century, the atrocities of the French
Revolution were still fresh as France continued to flounder seeking a
stable government. Twain, like other Anglophiles, saw the French through
English perspectives and France would remain their main cultural
adversary until Germany became the dominant threat after MT's death. I'm
not sure now, but I seem to recall Twain used Carlyle as his "tour
guidebook" when he visited Paris, looking for the places where heads had

Wes Britton