According to Carl Dolmetsch, *Our Famous Guest:  Mark Twain in Vienna*,
Clemens was actually close to fluent in German, at least by the 1890s.
He frequently spoke in German in public appearances in Vienna.  In this
matter, as in others, it is useful to distinguish between Clemens and his
comic avatar, Mark Twain.
Charles Crow
Department of English
Bowling Green State University
Bowling Green, OH 43403
[log in to unmask]