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Mark Twain Forum <[log in to unmask]>
"Ballard, Terry Prof." <[log in to unmask]>
Thu, 20 Mar 2003 14:52:19 -0500
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Mark Twain Forum <[log in to unmask]>
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One of the other lists I subscribe to is for people who attended the air
base school at Clark Field in the Philippines. I was surprised to find a
quote the other day from Mark Twain concerning patriotism. It went something
like "Real patriotism is being loyal to one's country rather than one's
government." Although Twain did say something like that, it reminded me that
most everything else he said about patriotism wouldn't sit well with a that
particular group, so I looked up some of it. In particular, this piece from
Letters from the Earth seemed to be talking to America through a time warp:

"I pray you to pause and consider. Against our traditions we are now
entering upon an unjust and trivial war, a war against a helpless people,
and for a base object--robbery. At first our citizens spoke out against this
thing, by an impulse natural to their training. Today they have turned, and
their voice is the other way. What caused the change? Merely a politician's
trick--a high-sounding phrase, a blood-stirring phrase which turned their
uncritical heads: Our Country, right or wrong! An empty phrase, a silly
phrase. It was shouted by every newspaper, it was thundered from the pulpit,
the Superintendent of Public Instruction placarded it in every schoolhouse
in the land, the War Department inscribed it upon the flag. And every man
who failed to shout it or who was silent, was proclaimed a traitor--none but
those others were patriots. To be a patriot, one had to say, and keep on
saying, "Our Country, right or wrong," and urge on the little war. Have you
not perceived that !
 that phrase is an insult to the nation?

For in a republic, who is "the Country"? Is it the Government which is for
the moment in the saddle? Why, the Government is merely a servant--merely a
temporary servant; it cannot be its prerogative to determine what is right
and what is wrong, and decide who is a patriot and who isn't. Its function
is to obey orders, not originate them. Who, then, is "the Country"? Is it
the newspaper? is it the pulpit? is it the school superintendent? Why, these
are mere parts of the country, not the whole of it; they have not command,
they have only their little share in the command. They are but one in the
thousand; it is in the thousand that command is lodged; they must determine
what is right and what is wrong; they must decide who is a patriot and who

Who are the thousand--that is to say, who are "the Country"? In a monarchy,
the king and his family are the country; in a republic it is the common
voice of the people. Each of you, for himself, by himself and on his own
responsibility, must speak. And it is a solemn and weighty responsibility,
and not lightly to be flung aside at the bullying of pulpit, press,
government, or the empty catch-phrases of politicians. Each must for himself
alone decide what is right and what is wrong, and which course is patriotic
and which isn't. You cannot shirk this and be a man. To decide it against
your convictions is to be an unqualified and inexcusable traitor, both to
yourself and to your country, let men label you as they may. If you alone of
all the nation shall decide one way, and that way be the right way according
to your convictions of the right, you have done your duty by yourself and by
your country--hold up your head! You have nothing to be ashamed of.

Only when a republic's life is in danger should a man uphold his government
when it is in the wrong. There is no other time.

This Republic's life is not in peril. The nation has sold its honor for a
phrase. It has swung itself loose from its safe anchorage and is drifting,
its helm is in pirate hands. The stupid phrase needed help, and it got
another one: "Even if the war be wrong we are in it and must fight it out:
we cannot retire from it without dishonor." Why, not even a burglar could
have said it better. We cannot withdraw from this sordid raid because to
grant peace to those little people on their terms--independence--would
dishonor us. You have flung away Adam's phrase--you should take it up and
examine it again. He said, "An inglorious peace is better than a
dishonorable war."

Terry Ballard
Quinnipiac University