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Date: Wed, 3 Oct 2007 21:00:22 +0300
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From: Crawford Steve <[log in to unmask]>
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Thanks, Harold,

I have the Keyes book, and note with interest how the religious
(scholars and non-scholars alike) in the USA have recently identified
and tackled cynicism. Jim Cleveland's short book titled "Beyond
Cynicism: Liberating Voices From The Spirit Within" is another good

Perhaps the best academic works I have seen on the topic of cynicism are

Cynicism and Postmodernity, by Timothy Bewes
Cynicism from Diogenes to Dilbert, by Ian Cutler

I agree with your point about the deaths of those close to Twain, and
his own ill health compounding Twain's angst in his final years. I
believe that what I am driving at has to do with his outlook toward
humanity, outside of his personal circles, as it evolved particularly
during the second half of his public life and works. But Twain always
seemed to me to be hopeful that aspects of his own life would work
out, even though many did not.

Steve Crawford
School of Cultural Studies
Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences